NAIADES Sodium ion batteries
Sodium ion batteries


The NAIADES project aims to develop and demonstrate the ambient Na-ion battery under realistic conditions as an effective alternative to the Li-ion battery for stationary Electric Energy Storage (EES) application.

The overall purpose of this project is to develop a battery technology based on the sodium ion technology for sustainable EES that would bring a radical decrease in cost with respect to the lithium ion technology while ensuring sustainability and performance in terms of safety, cycle life, and energy density.

The project’s Website is expected to become, not only the central point of information about the NAIADES project, but about any project related to the Na-ion technology in the World


Wide scale implementation of renewable energy will require growth in production of inexpensive, efficient energy storage systems. The extension of battery technology to large-scale storage will become necessary as intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and wave become more prevalent and integrated into electrical grid. Lithium-ion battery appears as quite mature for this application but its cost per mWh remains high in comparison to high temperature technology such as Zebra, which integrate low cost sodium base materials. Furthermore, as the use of large format lithium battery becomes widespread; increase demand for lithium commodity chemicals combined with geographically constrained Li mineral reserves will drive up prices. Based on the wide availability and low cost of sodium, ambient temperature sodium-based batteries have the potential for meeting large scale grid energy storage needs. In NAIADES, the objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of ambient temperature Na-ion battery from the knowledge and achievement that has been done at the laboratory scale, up to a module demonstration in a realistic application environment. Several European industries, research institutes and universities decided to join their efforts to assess the Na-ion technology for stationary storage application through building a 1 kW modules system Na-ion cell which will serve as data base to demonstrate economical and public acceptance.These module prototypes will be developed to meet performances in a 1kW system in a cost-effective, sustainable and environmental-friendly manner. New energy policy will be developed to integer the Na-ion battery in the Smart Grid initiative and promote the penetration of renewable energy in the electric network.


  • CEA


    Is a French Governmental Research Organization devoted to both fundamental and industrial R&D. The Laboratory for Technologies in New Energies and Nanotechnologies (LITEN), is devoted to nano-materials and nanotechnologies development in the energy field. The LITEN laboratory has established and proven skills in coordination and technical developments in cooperation with European Research Centers. CEA will coordinate this project and participate to material upscale, cell development, as well as prototype cell thermal characterization and safety test.

  • CSIC


    Spanish National Research Council is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe. Its main objective is to develop and promote research that will help bring about scientific and technological progress, and it is prepared to collaborate with Spanish and foreign entities in order to achieve this aim.

  • CNRS


    Is a public organization under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. As the largest fundamental research organization in Europe, CNRS carried out research in fields of knowledge, through its CNRS laboratories located throughout France.

    Website: |
  • VITO


    As independent and customer-oriented research organization, VITO provides innovative technological solutions as well as scientifically based advice and support in order to stimulate sustainable development and reinforce the economic and social fabric of Flanders.

    Website: |
  • Chalmers


    Was founded in 1829 and was transformed into an independent foundation in 1994. Chalmers has developed leading research in the areas of life sciences, materials science, information technology, micro-and nanotechnology, environmental sciences and energy. Chalmers' annual turnover is 3215 million SEK (appr. 380 million EUR), out of which 72 % are related to research

  • VDE

    VDE (Prüf- und Zertifizierungsinstitut GmbH) (VDE Testing and Certification Institute)

    Is part of the VDE Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e. V. (VDE - Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies) and has paved the way for state-of-the-art technological development since it was founded in 1920. Through the testing of electro technical products in a
    comprehensive, impartial and independent manner, the VDE Institute ensures the products’ safety, electromagnetic compatibility and usability, and utilizes the gained knowledge to further develop the state of technology. Large industrial company



    Is an international chemical Group committed to sustainable development with a clear focus on innovation and operational excellence. The Group is headquartered in Brussels, employs about 29,000 people in 55 countries.

  • SAFT


    Is the world's leading designer and manufacturer of advancedtechnology batteries for industry. SAFT products are widely acknowledged to be reliable, safe, cost-efficient, long-life and respectful of the environment. SAFT’s products and solutions are essentially nickel-based batteries, primary lithium and newgeneration lithium-based batteries and battery systems.

  • Estabanell


    Was founded in 1996 as a result of legal changes in the electrical sector, but its original electrical activity began in 1910. EYPESA has a network of over 1.100 km from Camprodon to Granollers, servicing more than 56.000 power customers, with two substations where it connects to the transmission network at 220kV, distributing energy through more than 800 secondary substations. EYPESA combines the roles of Distribution Systems Operator (DSO) and retailer, in the energy domain, deploying a customer focused relationship marketing, and as telecom operator, providing dark fiber and PLC based telecommunications.

  • MAST


    International Ltd was established in 1996 from the Carbon and Catalyst Group of the BP Research Centre. It was established to continue research, development and production of high performance polymer derived nanoporous carbons along with the development of applications for these materials. MAST provides a unique role in these projects in that it can produce these novel porous carbons from the gm to the tonne scale which provides the link between TRL 3 and TRL 5 stages. These projects have covered fields from Biomedical, electrochemistry, catalysis and separation technologies. MAST has been involved in three EU projects concerned with capacitive and electrochemical devices and 5 UK projects covering batteries and fuel cells. MAST has 15 employees



Policy Recommendations for Distribution of Electricity in Europe

The outcome of the Naiades project will be a new generation battery that will be tested in the Estabanell’s Low Voltage Network

A Group of European experts about Distribution of Electricity explain, their view about the future of this sector, looking at the future needs of the consumers and the digitalisation of the grid

“An active DSO is key to optimize energy storage”

GEODE Position Paper on Energy Storage - Functions of Electricity Storage for the Distribution Grid

Cheap, high-performance green battery runs on rotten apples

SAFT: Nous allons réaliser un démonstrateur de batterie sodium-ion de 1 kW

Seawater desalination using Na-ion battery materials

Faradion: UK firms to develop Na-ion batteries

Paper published in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society, volume 162, issue 14 (2015)

Paper published in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society, volume 162, issue 13 (2015)

The General Assembly took place in Paris, on July 17th 2015


# Deliverable name WP Lead participant Type Diss. level Due date
D.1.1 Report on synthesis of NVPF 1 CNRS R CO M18
D.1.2 Report on NaxMeO2 1 CNRS R CO M18
D.1.3 Report of characterization of commercial hard carbon 1 CSIC R CO M6
D.1.4 Benchmarking report of hard carbon materials 1 CNRS R CO M18
D.2.1 Formulation of optimized electrolytes 2 CHALMERS R CO M24
D.2.2 Physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the optimized electrolytes 2 CNRS R CO M24
D.2.3 Characterization of the aluminum corrosion as function of salts and solvents through cyclic voltammetry and quartz microbalance 2 CNRS R CO M24
D3.1 Production of the required amounts of fluorinated salts, polymers and additives. 3 SOLVAY DEM CO M24
D3.2 Mix of the chosen types and quantities of salt(s) and additive(s) with chosen solvents 3 CEA DEM CO M36
D3.3 Transposition parameters for materials synthesis from lab scale to pilot scale 3 SOLVAY R CO M24
D3.4 Scale-up of the positive active material production in SOLVAY 3 SOLVAY DEM CO M36
D3.5 Scale-up of the active material (HC) in MAST 3 MAST DEM CO M36
D4.1: electrode formulation for positive and negative electrode 4 SAFT R CO M25
D4.2 positive and negative electrode manufacturing, Energy type 4 SAFT DEM CO M30
D4.3 cell prototype cell manufactured 4 CEA DEM CO M24
D4.4 cylindrical and prismatic cell design selection 4 CEA DEM CO M26
D4.5 cell (5 Ah, 10 Ah manufactured) to make the module 4 CEA DEM CO M33
D5.1 Report on the study of formation optimization 5 CNRS R CO M30
D5.2 Report on ageing and post-mortem study 5 CNRS R CO M30
D5.3 Thermic behavior -safety- of material (DSC, XRD) 5 CHALMERS R CO M30
D6.1 Characterization test report 6 VITO R CO M12
D6.2 Safety test rapport (ARC test, abusive test) 6 VDE R CO M36
D6.3 Ageing test report 6 SAFT R CO M48
D6.4: Thermal behavior characterization 6 CEA R CO M20
D6.5 Cycling test in secondary substation report 6 EYPESA R CO M48
D7.2 Release of the BMS 7 VITO DEM CO M36
D7.3 System hybridation 7 EYPSA DEM CO M42
D7.4 System integration in secondary substation 7 EYPSA DEM CO M48
D8.1 Life cycle assessment report VITO R CO M46
D8.2 List of relevant regulations and Standards 8 VITO R CO M40
D.8.3 Economic modelling 8 EYPESA R CO M36
D.8.4 Development of future energy policy 8 EYPESA R CO M36
D9.2 User list consolidation 9 EYPESA R CO M6
D9.3 Public website and yearly updates 9 EYPESA other PU M6
D9.4 Summer school (Public) 9 CHALMERS other PU M32
D9.5 Organization of GEODE summit 9 EYPESA other PU M24, 36, 48
D10.1 Project collaborative platform 10 CEA other CO M1
D10.2 Minutes of the General Assembly meetings 10 CEA R CO M6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36
D10.3 Interim financial and technical reporting 10 CEA R CO M6, 12, 24, 30
D10.4 Quality management plan 10 CEA R CO M3

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